Composting is a process in which organic materials are allowed to decompose, it is a biological process more so than a chemical or mechanical process. Decomposition and transformation of the materials is accomplished through the action of fungi, bacteria, and other micro organisms.
With proper control of moisture, temperature, and aeration, composting can result in an overall reduction of volume of the material by as much as 50%. The final product is called compost or some call it humus.
Composting can increase the organic and nutrient content of soil and improve its texture and ability to retain moisture. Home or back yard composting is practiced by many people; if properly done, home composting can divert up to 30% of a typical households waste from a municipal landfill or incinerator.
The number on problem with a compost heap, is if improperly maintained it can become a foul, slimy. smelly mess and rather intense. This problem can be eliminated by proper aeration of the pile by aerating and turning the pile frequently, eliminating the process of anaerobic decomposition.